|CENA: 48.30 zł|
Dział: Historia Polski
Udział szlachty w powstaniu Bohdana Chmielnickiego (1648-1657)
W dotychczasowej historiografi brakuje jednoznacznej odpowiedzi, dlaczego magnateria ukrainna nie udzieliła dostatecznej pomocy Mikołajowi Potockiemu. Wśród pytań znajduje się także dotyczące postaw szlachty wobec buntu kozackiego i to nie tylko w momencie jego wybuchu, ale również po pierwszych jego sukcesach, czy też w następnych już miesiącach, po haniebnej ucieczce spod Piławiec, i dość upokarzającego odwrotu części sił z Lwowa, w głąb ziem koronnych. Dotąd nie był to główny kierunek badawczy. Rozprawa przygotowana przez Marię Dobrowolską w 1932 roku, choć w części dotyka tej właśnie tematyki. Ważna jest także próba określenia, jaka część szlachty wzięła udział po stronie Chmielnickiego w walkach z Rzeczpospolitą. Tekst M. Dobrowolskiej zamykają aneksy zawierające wykaz szlachty stojącej po stronie kozackiej.
The uprising of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, which broke out in 1648, gave rise to the Polish-Cossack wars, which lasted almost until the end of the XVII century. These events, according to many historians, created problems in the Rzeczpospolita, and hence crisis, which eventually led to decline in the next century. These events aroused the interest of historians as early as the end of the 19th century. It did not pass also in the interwar period, when the Lviv historical school, in particular, continued intensively researching the history of Polish-Cossack confl icts. After the end of World War II, during the Polish People’s Republic, all historical works ended their refl ections on the history of these wars in 1654, i.e. the Pereyaslav Council, when the Ukrainian Cossack was placed under the tsarist protection. Only the collapse of the communist system that allowed Polish historians to undertake appropriate modern research, which resulted in many interesting studies on this topic. However, a signifi cant part of the scientifi c achievements of the Lviv school was removed from the historiographical discourse, which remained in the archives of Lviv and was within the Soviet Union, which prevented virtually any contact with the preserved texts. The manuscript presented in this study originates directly from the scientifi c life of the Jan Kazimierz University in Lviv. This is a writing of the then perception of the liberation struggle in the Ukrainian lands, the attitude of the Polish nobility to the Cossack uprising and the state of knowledge about those tragic events in the interwar period. Doctoral dissertation wrote by Maria Dobrowolska concerns the fi rst phase of the Polish-Cossack wars, i.e. the period when Bohdan Khmelnytsky was the leader of the Cossack community. It is this period of the struggle of the Rzeczpospolita with the Ukrainian Cossacks that is the subject of most historical research created so far within the framework of Polish historiography. It can even be concluded that most campaigns, battles, or skirmishes have been described in articles or monographs. At the same time, Maria Dobrovolska’s doctoral dissertation, defended at the Jan Kazimierz University in Lviv in the interwar period, that was one of the fi rst attempts to synthesize the events of that time. As a result, it seems that this study, despite the passage of time, should fi nd own place in Polish, but also, perhaps, European historiography. However, at the present stage in the fi eld of scientifi c research on this issue there is quite a lot of progress, however, this does not deny the fact that the author’s research is irrelevant. On the contrary, the research should become a starting point for modern scientifi c research, fi nding an answer to the question that certainly raises this manuscript, i.e. what was the actual attitude of the petty and middle nobility of the Ukrainian lands to the uprising of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. The main manuscript presented to the reader also agrees well with the manuscript, which is considered an appendix and was dedicated to the Battle of Pyliavtsi in September 1648, which went down in the history of the Rzeczpospolita as the most shameful defeat in the war with the Cossacks. The escape of the crown army from the battlefi eld near Pyliavtsi, which was later dubbed „dirty shame” (pol. „Hańbą plugawiecką”), for years became a reference point for shameful behavior on the battlefi eld. This manuscript, although impossible to interpret authorship, on the basis of interestingly selected printed sources, supported by archival materials and the most important items of historical literature of the time, not only presents the events of the battle, but also outlines the atmosphere that accompanied the Crown Army. Even if the manuscript is a study written during a seminar at the Jan Kazimierz University in Lviv, it is a great example of the historical mastery of the time. Trying to show what the Lviv historical school looked like in the 1920s and 1930s, it is best to refer to such preserved texts in the form of manuscripts. The history of the Ukrainian Cossacks remains one of the fascinating elements of the history of the Rzeczpospolita in the 16th and 17th centuries. Cossack uprisings and revolts against the Rzeczpospolita, especially in the second half of the 17th century, are still of interest to researchers and consumers of the Clio muse. For all of them, the manuscripts presented in this study will undoubtedly be interesting, because they are accompanied by great scientifi c research, which not only relates to this events, but also tries to bring out of oblivion some of the authors who deserve their place in Polish historiography.
tłum. Yulia Kshanowska__
1. Jan Okołot, Rola historyczna Kozactwa dońskiego w walce z Turkami i Tatarami w jego najbardziej bohaterskim okresie (1637–1642).
2. Teodor Zagalak, Bunt Krzysztofa Kosińskiego 1591–1593.
3. Antoni Łukaszewski, Rok 1638 w dziejach stosunków polsko-kozackich (Bunty Ostrzanina, Skidana i Huni).
4. Maria Dobrowolska, Udział szlachty w powstaniu B. Chmielnickiego (164–1657).
5. Eustachy Jurków, Paweł Tetera, hetman Ukrainy prawobrzeżnej w l. 1662–1665 (Rola polityczna).
6. Franciszek Wiśmierski, Doroszenko na Sobieskiego w latach 1665–1676.
7. Franciszek Owadiuk, O polskim hetmanie XVII wieku Mikołaju Potockim.
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wydanie I, Warszawa 2021
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